Sunday, 11 July 2021




An MBA student was asked to list two strengths and a weakness in their leadership. As I thought about this question and the possible answers I realised that the question was flawed. Indeed I feel it indicates a complete misunderstanding of leadership and in this article I will try and explain why.


*I am not a fan of leadership which is often ego-driven, celebrity, wealth accumulation

I have always been curious about those who pursue leadership. I have a sense that many who pursue leadership (especially politics) are exactly the people who should not. The 'look at me' and 'win at any cost' types who will change the principles, values and rhetoric to suit the Board or the Electorate. I am reminded of Groucho Marx Quote ... I refuse to join any club that would have me as a member.

So in this context writing about the value of leadership and leadership traits may be mor challenging, but hopefully more insightful coming from a different perspective.

*Peer groups and families, management and coaching

I am not anti-leadership, but I see it in very different terms from the mainstream 1950s to 2010 view. I think post globalisation, Brexit, covid, climate change and a whole host of other social-political changes a different view is emerging.

You mother, father, friends and family may not be wealthy or eilte. You probably don't address them as Sir and Ma'm and yet these are your formative leaders. People may look to the person on the podium, or the statute on the column, but real change and influence comes from close ties and peer groups. The leaders of your life are probably the 5 people that you have spent most time with rather than the chance meeting with Prime Ministers Tony Blair or David Cameron.

I think teachers and coaches have an important role. This is the type of leadership that creates the right environment, nurtures thinking, encourages challenge. This 'Servant Leadership' has been often under-rated, but the fact that it now has a name and definition suggests that it is on the rise.

You’re not the average of the FIVE people you surround with. It’s way bigger than that. You’re the average of all the people who surround you. So take a look around and make sure you’re in the right surroundings.

Servant leadership is a leadership philosophy in which the goal of the leader is to serve. ... Servant leadership inverts the norm, which puts the customer service associates as a main priority. Instead of the people working to serve the leader, the leader exists to serve the people.

It is not new. Serve to Lead is the official text studied by all Officer Cadets at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. References, quotations, advice on Morale, Leadership, Discipline, the British Soldier, Man Management, Duty and Service, and Courage.

Sandhurst maintains a tradition of leadership , which is ambiguously summed up by the academies motto: Serve to Lead, one of which has survived through time and change because of the basic principle that an officer is a leader.

I highly recommend the book Humble Inquiry: The Gentle Art of Asking Instead of Telling Paperback by Edgar H. Schein

I also recommend reading about Mission Command which is more about Outcome than Oratory. Mission-type tactics, is a form of military tactics where the emphasis is on the outcome of a mission rather than the specific means of achieving it. US Colonel Sean Parkes suggests Mission command is the empowerment of leaders and followers to execute intent-based planning and is underpinned by trust, disciplined initiative and risk management. ... Notably, a true mission command climate generates a high-performance climate.

I am reminded of Lieutenant Colonel Tim Collins' Eve-of-Battle Speech: 'We go to liberate, not to conquer. We will not fly our flags in their country. We are entering Iraq to free a people and the only flag which will be flown in that ancient land is their own. ... Iraq is steeped in history.


Ohh there are so many: 1. Integrity; 2. Innovative; 3. Honesty; 4. Active Listening; 5. Self-Confidence; 6. Visionary; 7. Strong Communicator; 8. Delegation; 9. Decision-making Skill; 10. Problem-Solving Skills; 11. Fair Attitude; 12. Inquisitiveness; 13. Self-motivated; 14. Humility; 15. Care for Others; 16. Self-Discipline; 17. Emotional Intelligence; 18. Passion; 19. Resilience; 20. Accountability; 21. Supportive; 22. Tech-savvy; 23. Empathy; 24. Learning Agility; 25. Empowerment;

I can add little value in this area, social media, books and search engines are bursting with lists and advice. I have read possibly hundreds of books on philosophy, history, change, technology and leadership with all sorts of ideas, icons and instruction.

If you are planning to start a small library on this topic this is a good book to have in your collection Leadersmithing: Revealing the Trade Secrets of Leadership Book by Eve Poole

However the sales people for MBAs, Executive Leadership Programmes may sell you a sanitised version of leadership with simple guides and checklists but it it not all like William Shakespeare's Henry V: Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more; Or close the wall up with our English dead [...] Follow your spirit, and upon this charge. Cry 'God for Harry, England, and Saint George!' (spoken by King Henry)


*Steve Jobs and Donald Trump, Henry Ford - deeply flawed characters that inspire

So the theory is leadership is good, and leaders are good guys? Maybe not. Maybe leadership is getting things done, but they may not be great people to work for. To ensure no one could recreate the Taj Mahal’s beauty, Shah Jahan supposedly severed the hands and gouged the eyes of the artisans and craftsmen. Steve Jobs could use his reality distortion field (ways of thinking and talking) to appropriate others' ideas as his own, sometimes proposing an idea back to its originator, only a week after dismissing it. At one time 50% of America believe Donald Trump is their preferred leader, despite being an alleged liar, racist, misogynist etc. Henry Ford may have automated car production (and people) - "You don't think of Hitler having a portrait of Henry Ford on his office wall in Munich." (Miriam Kleinman, a researcher with the Washington law firm of Cohen, Millstein and Hausfeld) He is the only American whom Adolf Hitler compliments by name in Mein Kampf.

So when my MBA student friend writes about two strengths and a weakness in their leadership, would the above characters be role models for the former or the latter.

*Bill Gates, Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos - technology and technocrats leaders

There is no doubt that these are amongst the cleverest people alive. They have used their genius and vision to make vast wealth and applied some of that wealth to projects which may or many not benefit mankind depending on your perspective.

As of 2018, Bill and Melinda Gates had donated around $36 billion to the foundation.The primary stated goals of the foundation are to enhance healthcare and reduce extreme poverty across the world, and to expand educational opportunities and access to information technology in the U.S. Key. Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos have ostensibly replaced the US and USSR in the space-race, but is this self indulgent big boys toys, or something critical to the advancement of humanity?

In this context Leadership appears to be how you accumulate and use your wealth. There is perhaps some over-lap with the previous grouping but I suspect the power of technology (to persuade, market, sell, influence) is going to be an increasing feature of leadership, a fact not lost on Dominic Cummings, Brittany Kaiser or Cambridge Analytica.

Are these the new leaders, those that have mastered technology and data to sell or manipulate? When my MBA student friend writes about two strengths and a weakness in their leadership, should Dominic Cummings, Brittany Kaiser or Jeff Basos be top of their list?

*Margaret Thatcher - ideological characters that don't listen

I am not an historian, but I have noted that the British seem to swig the pendulum between strong authoritative leaders and more conciliatory types who are often a compromise candidate after a period of turmoil. John Major followed Margaret Thatcher, Gordon Brown followed Toney Blair and the 'weak' Theresa May was followed by the 'charismatic' Boris Johnson. I will explore contingent and contextual leadership further below.

Was Margaret Thatcher a great leader? I think so, but I know plenty who would disagree and have good evidence to support their view. However there are plenty of occasions when people have sought, supported, elected and followed the strong willed or indeed outright tyrants.

Thatcher’s confidence in her ideals was characteristic of her prime ministerial tenure, and it caused her to run a government based on conviction politics – in other words, driven primarily on her own values. However, some political commentators have argued that this approach is eventually what led to her downfall.Following a slew of economic problems and unpopular policies, including the infamous Poll Tax, Thatcher decided to resign after it became obvious that she had lost the support of her Cabinet and closest colleagues.

Is conviction politics leadship, or myopic? A trait for the strengths-column or the weakness-column.

*Ghandi and Mandela - philosophical characters that challenge thinking

I am cautious here, because I do not know either sufficiently well to be authoritative, but at the same time it would be a terrible omission not to include them in an essay or article about leadership.

Gandhi's leadership role was extremely complex. Knowing that violence only begets violence, he began practicing passive resistance, Satyagraha. Mahatma Gandhi was a leader that brought one of the world's most powerful nations to its knees... by using peace, love and integrity as his method for change.

In 1943, Mandela met Anton Lembede, an ANC member affiliated with the "Africanist" branch of African nationalism, which was virulently opposed to a racially united front against colonialism and imperialism or to an alliance with the communists. Despite his friendships with white people, people of colour, and communists, Mandela believed that Black Africans should be entirely independent in their struggle for political self-determination. After taking part in the unsuccessful protest to prevent the forced relocation of all Black people from the Sophiatown suburb of Johannesburg in February 1955, Mandela concluded that violent action would prove necessary to end apartheid and white minority rule. US President Ronald Reagan and UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher; both considered Mandela's ANC a terrorist organisation sympathetic to communism, and supported its suppression. Mandela served 27 years in prison, split between Robben Island, Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. Amid growing domestic and international pressure and fears of racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk led efforts to negotiate an end to apartheid, which resulted in the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory and became president.

It is a cliché to say One Man's Terrorist another Man's Freedom Fighter? The guerrilla fighter's targets are military ones, while the terrorist deliberately targets civilians. By this definition, a terrorist organization can no longer claim to be 'freedom fighters' because they are fighting for national liberation or some other worthy goal.

History is an interesting judge of character (and leadership) and despite protestations to the contrary we are always re-wring history by the way we edit books, tear down statues and reinterpret events or reconcile old enemies.

I would be on the wrong side of history to suggest that these men were not great leaders but ostensibly they were opposites for the same ends. This furthering my view that leadership is not one thing (practicing passive resistance) or another (freedom fighter) but like water always changing in form (ice, sea, stream, clouds, rain). It is therefore to nebulous for us to asset that one approach is leadership and other other is not.

*Gareth Southgate - leaders of team behaviour and philosophy

And so to the latest icon of leadership: Gareth Southgate. I like him, but ironically because he is less like a leader and more like an elder. I like him because appears to me to be managing and supporting his team with a focus on them rather then himself. I have often suggested leadership is over-hyped and management or coaching (helping people complete tasks and achieve their goals) is a humbler but more noble pursuit.


*Contextual Leadership: Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler

I met an HR Leadership Trainer who told me that "Leaders are born, not made" which I found ironic since their professional as a trainer was about helping, supporting guiding people to become leaders. If they are really born with innate talent why bother with education or experience?

Let’s imagine: It’s time to elect a world leader, and your vote counts. Which would you choose:

Candidate A: Associates with ward healers and consults with astrologists; has had two mistresses; chain-smokes and drinks eight to ten martinis a day.
Candidate B: Was kicked out of office twice; sleeps until noon; used opium in college; drinks a quart of brandy every evening.
Candidate C: Is a decorated war hero, a vegetarian, doesn’t smoke, drinks an occasional beer, and has had no illicit love affairs.

Which of these candidates is your choice? You don’t really need any more information, do you? ; Candidate A is Franklin Roosevelt. Candidate B is Winston Churchill. Candidate C is Adolf Hitler.

I do believe leadership is contextual, nature, nurture, education and experience are key factors is is history and opportunity. Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler would be my examples.

I aim to read Hitler and Churchill. Secrets of Leadership by Andrew Roberts

*Goleman's leadership styles and Belbin Team Types

According to Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee, there are six emotional leadership styles – Authoritative, Coaching, Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting, and Coercive. Each style has a different effect on the emotions of the people that you're leading.

Pacesetting - “Do it my way”
Commanding - “Do it because I say so”
Visionary - “Let’s remind ourselves of the larger purpose”
Affiliative -“People first, task second”
Democratic - “Let’s work it out together”
Coaching - “Let me help you develop”

The nine Belbin team roles

The Monitor Evaluator (thought-oriented)
The Specialist (thought-oriented)
The Plant (thought-oriented)
The Shaper (action-oriented)
The Implementer (action-oriented)
The Completer/Finisher (action-oriented)
The Coordinator (people-oriented)
The Team Worker (people-oriented)
The Resource Investigator (people-oriented)

For me these are critically important to context, because the right combination or leadership style, role and context is rather like a chemical reaction. Perhaps nothing will happen, or something completely transformative will happen.

*Personality Types - MBTI, DISC and Ocean-Big5

I think it is important here to consider personality type, when thinking about leadership style. This may be interesting because there are many self assessment personality type quizzed on-line which may be interesting to the reader.

The best know is Myers Brigges MBTI

The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator is an introspective self-report questionnaire indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. The test attempts to assign four categories: introversion or extraversion, sensing or intuition, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving.

The MBTI instrument has four sets of letters:

E and I stand for Extraversion and Introversion—indicating whether you get energy from being around people or from time spent alone.

S and N stand for Sensing and Intuition—indicating whether you become aware of specific facts and concrete details or prefer to focus on hunches and the big picture.

T and F stand for Thinking and Feeling—indicating whether you tend to make decisions based on logical analysis and the principles involved or prefer to decide by considering your values and promoting harmony for the people involved.

J and P stand for Judging and Perceiving—indicating whether you prefer your life to be planned and like it when things are decided or prefer to go with the flow and like keeping your options open.

There are broadly 16 personality types.

Analysts Architect INTJ-A / INTJ-T Imaginative and strategic thinkers, with a plan for everything.
Logician INTP-A / INTP-T Innovative inventors with an unquenchable thirst for knowledge.
Commander ENTJ-A / ENTJ-T Bold, imaginative and strong-willed leaders, always finding a way – or making one.
Debater ENTP-A / ENTP-T Smart and curious thinkers who cannot resist an intellectual challenge.
Diplomats Advocate INFJ-A / INFJ-T Quiet and mystical, yet very inspiring and tireless idealists.
Mediator INFP-A / INFP-T Poetic, kind and altruistic people, always eager to help a good cause.
Protagonist ENFJ-A / ENFJ-T Charismatic and inspiring leaders, able to mesmerize their listeners.
Campaigner ENFP-A / ENFP-T Enthusiastic, creative and sociable free spirits, who can always find a reason to smile.
Sentinels Logistician ISTJ-A / ISTJ-T Practical and fact-minded individuals, whose reliability cannot be doubted.
Defender ISFJ-A / ISFJ-T Very dedicated and warm protectors, always ready to defend their loved ones.
Executive ESTJ-A / ESTJ-T Excellent administrators, unsurpassed at managing things – or people.
Consul ESFJ-A / ESFJ-T Extraordinarily caring, social and popular people, always eager to help.
Explorers Virtuoso ISTP-A / ISTP-T Bold and practical experimenters, masters of all kinds of tools.
Adventurer ISFP-A / ISFP-T Flexible and charming artists, always ready to explore and experience something new.
Entrepreneur ESTP-A / ESTP-T Smart, energetic and very perceptive people, who truly enjoy living on the edge.
Entertainer ESFP-A / ESFP-T Spontaneous, energetic and enthusiastic people – life is never boring around them.

DISC is simpler (and therefore more popular) summarising people as follows.

D- Direct Demanding Decisive Determined Doer NT TASK OUTGOING
I- Influencing Impressionable Interactive Impressive NF PEOPLE OUTGOING
S- Supportive Stable Steady Sweet SF, PEOPLE, RESERVED
C- Calculating Competent Conscientious Contemplative ST, TASK, RESERVED

Note the links to MBTI using the letters N, T, S and F to note preferences

The Big Five personality traits is a suggested taxonomy, or grouping, for personality traits

The theory identifies five factors OCEAN:
openness to experience (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious)
conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. extravagant/careless)
extraversion (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved)
agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. critical/rational)
neuroticism (sensitive/nervous vs. resilient/confident)

These are simple lists to remind the informed, but there is a lot to discover and I would encourage anyone to read and self-test, perhaps using on-line tools. It can be revelatory. All the above inform us about ourselves and others and our tendency to like or loath, lead or follow.


Whereas the above may indicate our personality, leadning style or role preferences (which clearly are not the same, but do inter-relate) it is important to consider how we came to these.

For the sake of brevity I will point to a previous article. In this article I explore attachment theory; maternal deprivation and social isolation; mental representations and working models; patterns of attachment; romantic partners; and resilience. I also include a section for self assessment, recommended books and references.

If you look at the biographies and histories of any of the above named leaders it is clear that family, culture and community are big factors in their nature and nurture which have shaped their attitude and leadership.


Businesses and Organisations are often like dysfunctional families, you don't usually get to choose your circumstances and somehow have to get along. Also Businesses and Organisations are often the places where people act our their dreams or fears, talent or fantasy. It may be useful therefore to explore family therapy as a model for organisations and a useful perspective for leadership.

For the sake of brevity I will point to a previous article. In this article I explore management models for teams, alignment, communication, productivity and also some models from psychodynamics, family therapy and resources useful to understand relationships and their affect on the whole system.


Words change meanings over time. To be "Sick" was to be ill or unwell. Now for some "If it's really cool, it's sick". To any faith-based person that you walked up to and said 'man, you're wicked!', that goes against the whole belief system that they've been striving to be, yet for some it means "Impressive"

Maybe leadership is simply the new word for good management, slightly over-hyped in the same way that to be good was acceptable but nowadays in the competition for attention everyone has to be awesome!

Good leadership is what happens when the square pegs find themselves square holes, or round pegs round holes. It is not about being square or being round and so therein the pretext of seeking two strengths and a weakness in our leadership is deeply flawed because the behaviours, traits and beliefs are simply "you" and leadership is "you in the context" of other people.

For me, it is competence at understanding yourself, circumstance, and supporting people achieve their goals.

That'll do.


You Are The Average Of The Five People You Spend The Most Time With

You’re NOT The Average Of The Five People You Surround Yourself With

The Language of Mission Command and the Necessity of an Historical Approach

Why People Are Drawn to Narcissists Like Donald Trump

How American Icon Henry Ford Fostered Anti-Semitism

Margaret Thatcher: Leadership skills of the Iron Lady

Defining Terrorism: Is One Man's Terrorist another Man's Freedom Fighter?

Gareth Southgate leadership

Words and Meanings

Secrets of Leadership: Hitler and Churchill

Adolf Hitler And Winston Churchill

Daniel Goleman Leadership Styles

The Nine Belbin Team Roles

Sunday, 4 July 2021




Here is some thinking on culture and those that have gone from heroes to villains, and the idea that there is no black or white in business but shades of grey and a swinging pendulum of change and context which sometimes are aligned and sometimes out of sync.

The hypothesis is based on In Search of Excellence is a book written by Tom Peters and Robert H. Waterman and the promise it proclaimed and the reality that came to pass.


In Search of Excellence is a book written by Tom Peters and Robert H. Waterman, Jr.. It sold 4.5 million copies and explored the art and science of management and was part of my MBA Study.

However the research methodology employed by the authors of this book is also severely criticised by Phil Rosenzweigh in his book The Halo Effect as the "Delusion of Connecting the Winning Dots". In an article in Fast Company, Peters remarked that the criticism that "If these companies are so excellent, Peters, then why are they doing so badly now," was unfair.

I highly recommend reading this..


Like all good MBAs, process, culture and change consultants I have read and studied Lean Manufacturing, Toyota Production System and all the books in that section of the Library. So it is interesting to make Toyota the focus of my exploration into heroes to villains and the pendulum of change and context.

The CEO of General Motors announced that GM wasn’t in the business of making cars, it was in the business of making money. (This came as a shock to most of GM’s customers, who were in the market to buy a car — or even better, a way of life — not to spend money.)

Against that context Japanese manufacturers were bound to do well.



The Toyota concept came from visiting a supermarket. The idea of just-in-time production was originated by Kiichiro Toyoda, founder of Toyota. The question was how to implement the idea. In reading descriptions of American supermarkets he noted the store restocks the shelf with enough new product to fill up the shelf space. Similarly, a work-center that needed only enough to replace the inventory that had been withdrawn. Less stock, less waste, means less cost and more profit.

The right process will produce the right results

>Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface.
>Use the "pull" system to avoid overproduction.
>Level out the workload (heijunka). (Work like the tortoise, not the hare.)
>Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right from the start. (Jidoka)
>Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment.
>Use visual control so no problems are hidden.
>Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes.

Add value to the organization by developing your people and partners

>Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others.
>Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company's philosophy.
>Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve.

Source: Toyota Production System


We can see from the article below, and the key points I have extracted Totoya's status as a role model.

Analyzing Toyota’s Recipe for Success – The Toyota Way

Key points

Toyota way can be described by using the following 4 P model – Philosophy, Process, People & Partners, and Problem solving.

1. The Toyota philosophy: management decisions are based on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial goals

2. Processes: the most important objective of the Toyota System has been to increase production efficiency by consistently and thoroughly eliminating waste. Closely linked to Toyota’s JIT Just in Time principle is the company’s supply chain management, as the high efficiency and effectiveness of a JIT inventory system is heavily dependent upon the smooth co-ordination of a company’s supplier network (a feature of the villain part of this essay)

3. People and Partners: The underlying principle is that a workplace with high morale and a high level of job satisfaction is more likely to produce reliable, high-quality products at affordable prices. In contrast to other car manufacturers like GM or Ford, Toyota has managed to create an organizational culture that strengthens employee motivation and encourages their participation,

4. Problem Solving: one always has to see for himself in order to thoroughly understand the situation (jap. Genchi Genbutsu), and that making decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly considering all options, is the key for sustainable problem solving


Under the lean manufacturing system, seven wastes are identified: overproduction, inventory, motion, defects, over-processing, waiting, and transport.

An overall objective is to limit resources used in the manufacturing system to only those needed. There are six other objectives that are a key to obtaining the overall objective.

First — Optimize each individual step of the manufacturing system. In other words, make each part as efficient as possible to get the most from the least.

Second — Make a product with no flaws or defects. This ensures that each part of the production line will go as planned.

Third — Reduce the manufacturing cost. The cheaper it is to make the product the larger the profit for the company.

Fourth — Make a product that is demanded by consumers. If there is no demand then there is only money lost.

Fifth — There needs to be flexibility in the system. Things will not always go as planned and the system must be flexible enough that it can be modified easily.

Sixth — There needs to be a strong and reliable relationship between customers and suppliers. Since Just-In-Time manufacturing means there is virtually no extra stock or materials on hand, companies need to rely on each other to be reliable and on time.

Read more: Lean Manufacturing Made Toyota the Success Story it is Today


An industry of lean-manufacturing experts have extolled the virtues of TPS so often and with so much conviction that managers believe its role in Toyota’s success. HBR research shows that TPS is necessary but is by no means sufficient to account for Toyota’s success.

The company succeeds because it creates contradictions and paradoxes in many aspects of organizational life. Employees have to operate in a culture where they constantly grapple with challenges and problems and must come up with fresh ideas.

During the first phase of HBRs research, they uncovered six major contradictory tendencies, one of which influences company strategy and the others Toyota’s organizational culture.

1. Toyota moves slowly, yet it takes big leaps: the launch of the Prius in Japan in 1997 was a huge leap.

2. Toyota grows steadily, yet it is a paranoid company - Never be satisfied

3. Toyota’s operations are efficient, but it uses employees’ time in seemingly wasteful ways - You would be amazed to see how many people attend a meeting at Toyota even though most of them don’t participate in the discussions.

4. Toyota is frugal, but it splurges on key areas. - In Japan, the company turns off the lights in its offices at lunchtime. At the same time, Toyota spends huge sums of money on manufacturing facilities

5. Toyota insists internal communications be simple, yet it builds complex social networks -Toyota fosters a complex web of social networks because it wants “everybody to know everything.”

6. Toyota has a strict hierarchy, but it gives employees freedom to push back -Pick a friendly fight.

The ying and yang of contradictions and paradoxes appear to be as follows...

Forces of Expansion 1: Impossible goals- For example, Watanabe has said that his goal is to build a car that makes the air cleaner, prevents accidents, makes people healthier and happier when they drive it

Forces of Expansion 2: Local customization - Local customization forces Toyota to push the envelope in numerous ways. For instance in 1998 when it developed the Innovative International Multipurpose Vehicle (IMV) platform. Toyota engineers had to design the platform to meet the needs of consumers in more than 140 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Central and South America, and the Middle East.

Forces of Expansion 3: Experimentation - People test hypotheses and learn from the consequent successes and failures. The development team, called G21, first came up with a car that delivered a 50% improvement in fuel efficiency. Toyota’s senior executives rejected the prototype and demanded a 100% improvement

Three Forces of Integration 1: Values from the founders - Toyota has succeeded in the long term because of its naive optimism. Its employees see obstacles as challenges. Toyota’s chairperson Fujio Cho translated genchi genbutsu as “Have you seen it yourself?” The implication is that if you have not seen something firsthand, your knowledge about it is suspect.

Three Forces of Integration 2: Up-and-in people management - In 1977 The order had come down from then president Hiroshi Okuda: “Cut all costs, but don’t touch any people.” Toyota trains employees in problem-solving methods during their first 10 years with the company. Another feature of its people management policies is the role exemplary employees play as mentors.

Three Forces of Integration 3: Open communication - Information flows freely up and down the hierarchy and across functional and seniority levels, extending outside the organization to suppliers, customers, and dealers.

HBR conclude People often ask us, “Tell me one thing I should learn from Toyota.” That misses the point. Emulating Toyota isn’t about copying any one practice; it’s about creating a culture. That takes time. It requires resources. And it isn’t easy

Read more: The Contradictions That Drive Toyota’s Success


So far, so good. Toyota looks like a great success story and the articles picked indicate why and how. But nothing is perfect forever. There may be dark side.



When in 2009 Toyota Motor halted sales of eight models in the United States because of potentially fatal sudden acceleration problems, industry pundits were quick to cite Toyota's rapid expansion into the States as the key culprit.

Key issues

1. Bureaucracy: Toyota lost its key bridge between management in Japan and various U.S. constituencies — and its ability to respond rapidly when crises hit.

2. Over confidence - information is shared only on a “need to know” basis, confides one American employee. And long a scrappy underdog to General Motors and Ford Motor, Toyota developed a sense of cockiness

3. Weak Management - When he took the job, Toyoda told the world that he would practice “genchi genbutsu,” which translates as “going to where the problem is.” But when the safety flap came to light, Akio Toyoda, 53, grandson of the company’s founder remained silent and even attended the annual gathering of world leaders in Davos,

The impact

Toyota’s problem-solving mechanism clearly broke down. The company revealed as much in the series of explanations it released. Initially, Toyota announced the floor mats were the problem. Then it was the gas pedals, which were made by an Indiana-based supplier and thus limited the problem only to U.S.-made cars. But that story didn’t hold up because of a well-publicized case involving a Lexus in California in which four people died — and that vehicle was made in Japan. Then in early February, problems developed with the Prius hybrid and its brakes in both the U.S. and Japan. Toyota described it as a software issue.

Now it seems the underlying problem involves the software and the computerized controls governing acceleration and braking in many Toyota vehicles. CEO Toyoda has only compounded the crisis. When he finally held a press conference in Japan to apologize, he pointedly did not make a deep bow to demonstrate regret.

Read more: Toyota Recall Highlights Deep Organizational Failures


In Japan, executives bow as a form of apology. The deeper the bow, the deeper the regret the executives hope to express. In the United States, however, apologies are not enough (“Toyota’s President Getting,” 2010). Americans often desire answers and explanations for the crisis that has occurred.

During the recall crisis, reports surfaced of Japanese and American public relations practitioners would get into screaming matches during phone conferences as they tried to convince one another that their methodology of communication was the more effective one.

When a crisis strikes in Asian countries, the company involved works silently to resolve the problem before addressing the media. However, this method is seen as unprofessional in the United States where consumers, politicians and other affected parties expect answers first and action second.

When the crisis struck, each of the public relations teams in different countries should have developed a specialized response for each country’s communicational expectations.

Read more: Toyota’s Cultural Crisis A case analysis of the company’s 2010 recall and the communications crisis that could have been avoided.By Ashley Nichols


During the 1990s, Toyota began to experience rapid growth and expansion. With this success, the organization became more defensive and protective of information.

Toyota’s CEO, Akio Toyoda, the grandson of its founder, has conceded, “Quite frankly, I fear the pace at which we have grown may have been too quick.”

Case in Point: Toyota Struggles With Organizational Structure


1. Aggressive growth can create unmanageable risk. Toyota’s desire to supplant General Motors as the world’s number-one car-maker pushed it to the outer limits of quality control.

2. Get the facts quickly and manage your risks aggressively. One of the more troubling aspects of Toyota’s recalls (there have been two) has been the company’s differing accounts of the source of the problem.

3. Your supply chain is only as strong as your weakest link. The reality is that auto companies make hardly any of their parts.

4. Accept Responsibility. This is one area where Toyota seems to be doing a good job, albeit maybe a year or more too late.

5. Take the Long View. The three leading factors burnishing corporate reputation these days are “quality products and services, a company I can trust and transparency of business practices,”

Read More: Toyota Recall: Five Critical Lessons


My hypothesis was that no company is truly excellent and often success is contingent on circumstances. My starting point was inspired by the book In Search of Excellence, whose 'excellent' examples were not so excellent a few years later.

Form my reading of all the articles listed it seems to me that Toyota has good DNA but have suffered pain as a result of geographic and cultural expansion straining systems and compromising communications.

A question in the current social economic climate has to be: Is all growth good? Are the problems experienced by Toyota an inevitable consequence of scale? When the underdog becomes the overlord the change almost resembles a switch in polarity rather than a gradual process.

The systems thinking and process control that Toyota has been famous for appears to have become so complex that its now part of the problem rather a method of quality and control. It is what science-fiction speculates will happen when complex systems start making the decisions rather than following them.

It seems to be inevitable that more like this will happen in the future.\

If you are interested in helping people, organisations achieve change through process, projects or coaching get in touch.

Tim HJ Rogers
MBA Management Consultant + Change Practitioner
ICF Trained Coach IoD Business Mentor
Mob 447797762051
#people #process #performance #projects #change

Monday, 14 June 2021



According to a report by the Project Management Institute there is demand for 88 million roles by the end of 2021. In this article my aim is to share some experience, notably contracting the theory with the reality of Project Management and noting some of the things that are well documented and pointless with the factors that are often absent but essential.

Since my aim is not to teach project management nor champion one approach over another (eg Waterfall v Agile, or PRINCE2 v Scrum) I will instead include references and links in the comments if anyone asks.


Project managers play the lead role in planning, executing, monitoring, controlling and closing projects. They are accountable for the entire project scope, project team, resources, and the success or failure of the project. There are lots of good texts explaining the role of a Project Manager (PM) and comparing to a Sponsor, Scrum Master, Product Owner etc. (See links in comments). What I would like to do here is draw upon my own experience and make the comparison of Project Manager with Project Leader.

I often see inexperienced and newly qualified Project Manager who can do exactly what the client wants and what the book or course says is the best way of doing it. They are like novice cooks following a recipe for a customer who knows they want a cheese omlette. What can do wrong? The client knows what they want and the book explains how to do it. When people hire student, graduate or cheap project managers this is what they get, and very often this is excellent value for money.

Problems arise when the client isn't able to clearly articulate what they want, or the idea is so novel to the organisation, technology, people or circumstance that the Dummy's Guide to Projects is not really helpful. Project Leadership is more like coaching or consulting, using discussion to help define and document the intended outcome and necessary outputs in a way that can be used to gain consensus, clarity, coordination and collaboration.  When this is achieved then perhaps you could delegate a Project Manager in the same way a Chef might direct a Cook, but in my experience ambiguity doesn't go away and there is a constant need to discuss, review and revise and this happens at a level of seniority where Project Management is more about people and stakeholder management.


It is interesting to think about what is important in the context of why projects fail and accordingly the key success factors in rank order.

Clearly defined objectives
Good planning and control methods
Good quality of project managers
Good management support
Enough time and resources
Commitment by all
High user involvement
Good communication
Good project organisation and structure
Being able to stop a project

We can see right away that communication and consensus (near the top) are critical to co-ordination and collaboration (which are necessary in all the subsequent elements). By speaking to experienced project managers  Sam Elbeik and Mark Thomas attempted to identify the critical factors that must be addressed if a project is to be completed successfully. They developed a six stage process for managing projects: define, plan, build the team, lead and motivate, control communications, review.


The underestimation of complexity, cost and/or schedule

National Health Service – UK - Rollout of the Care Records Service component of the UK’s National Program for IT grinds to a halt after pilot sites report significant problems.  Already 4 years behind schedule, the initial pilot releases in London England were branded a shambles as failure to address culture change issues interacted with ‘technical faults’ to produce weeks of chaos at hospitals. Original scope and cost of project was radically underestimated.  Original budget was $4.6B, it has subsequently grown to $24B, with some observers estimating it could grow to as much as $40B.  

Failure to establish appropriate control over requirements and/or scope

Rate Collection Agency – Northern Island - Problems with local property tax (“property rates”) collection system result in $260M worth of payments going uncollected. Poor requirements specifications, missing requirements, problems migrating data from legacy systems, pressure to deploy the system before adequate testing had been completed.

Lack of communications

Department of homeland security – USA - Efforts to upgrade existing anti-terror tracking systems run into serious architectural and quality flaws. System fails to perform basic Boolean functions (AND, OR, etc) and reports of serious performance concerns surface. System performance and architectural concerns regarding use of XML over a relational database design, failure to meet security requirements, radical reduction in functionality versus systems it replaces (reasons for functional shortfalls not stated), failure by the government to staff key oversight roles, quality flaws, agency turf battles, plus some interesting allegations

Failure to engage stakeholders

Qantas - “Jetsmart” engineering parts management system is renamed “Dumbjet” by aircraft engineers because the system is so difficult to use. Failure to engage the engineers who would be the eventual users of the system into the requirements and design processes resulted in a system that the engineers deemed to be unusable once it was launched.

See more examples from the resources provided in the comments.


I started as a computer programmer and later became Head of IT. I had a logical thinking discipline and analytical approach to problem solving and later managing systems and solution delivery. I then got involved in non-technology change when first working in retail and thinking about shoppers, suppliers, staff and the need to work with groups and teams with different needs and priorities.

This then went up a level when I took responsibility for the 'privatisation' of the Post Office and necessarily had to start thinking about laws, legislation, unions, policies and politicians. It was in this period that I did my MBA. At each stage of increasing complexity I learned more sometimes getting it right, and sometimes learning from mistakes.

I became a ICF Trained Coach and IoD Business Mentor when I realised that I understood systems and processes better than I understood people. I could discuss, design, build and deploy changes in banking, retail, public service or improve processes and performance in manufacture or service but I knew very little about psychology or the cognitive processes of change and the unconscious concerns that often underpin resistance or fear to change.

Ironically I am a World Champs and Commonwealth Games athlete, but I never applied the mindset of sport into the management of people because despite the frequent comparison they are very different. Nonetheless the combined experience of sport, technology, business, change, processes and people has been valuable especially given the academic underpinning with qualifications. This it not about the badge, but the books. It isn't about the certificate but the knowledge.


Read wisely, there are a few books from which you can gain many years of knowledge in a few weeks.  There is some brilliant stuff on the internet but a book is often better than a brochure or a blog when it comes to deeper learning.

Gain experience, take the jobs at the edge of your comfort-zone and work really hard to understand everything around that new role, sector or circumstance. When I took a role in a bank I also took a Corporate Diploma in Banking so that I properly understood the client, industry and culture as well as the project and planned changes.

Work hard to help people achieve their goals. Not every moment has been a success, but people will forgive you and work hard if they believe you are genuinely committed to helping them or their organisation achieve something important.

Ask people what they think. In the battle of ideas yours may have only one-vote, whereas others will come wrapped with different experiences and perspectives. Examine these very closely and then seek consensus rather than compliance.

See in comments below useful resources.

Tim HJ Rogers
MBA Management Consultant + Change Practitioner
ICF Trained Coach IoD Business Mentor
Tutor / Trainer for the Chartered Management Institute.
Mob 447797762051
#people #process #performance #projects #change

Useful resources to the above article.

What is a project manager? The lead role for project success,Project%20managers%20play%20the%20lead%20role%20in%20planning%2C%20executing%2C%20monitoring,or%20failure%20of%20the%20project.

Scrum Master & Project Manager: What are the differences?

Top 10 Reasons Why Projects Fail

Analysis of the examples in the “Catalogue of catastrophe” reveals the most common mistakes.

CMI Strategic Project Management

Tuesday, 11 May 2021


A series of people, processes, technology and other resources organised to deliver outputs, outcomes and benefits which align with the strategy. The aim is to complete on-time, on-budget, to-specification, with low-risk and high-communication. The outputs / outcomes are clear and ideally SMART so that everyone knows exactly what will be delivered, why, and how and when this will complete and flipped into business-as-usual (and the project team disbanded)

Lots of projects all joined together in a sequence that delivered more than just one thing, but a whole sequence of things which may be separate, dependant or interdependent.

Separate projects might be a change in HR and a change in IT that have no relation to each-other but together achieve aa programme (strategic) aim.

Dependant projects more obviously are those where one must complete before the other starts. Arguably this could be one project with Phase1, Phase2, Phase3 but you may choose to split it into a programme of Project1, Project2, Project3 if they have different suppliers budgets, teams, aims, focus, timescales.

Interdependent are a mix of the above. Not exactly one after the other, but a more complex integration which inevitably happens where people and process change runs parallel to a business or technology change.


So one issue is do you want 1 x mega-project or 10 x projects as part of a programme. As noted above a key factor may be if they have different suppliers budgets, teams, aims, focus, timescales, but also the competence, capacity of people (Sponsors, Project Managers, Participants) to mentally keep track of everything.


In organisations without a formal Project/Programme Office to support the business with tools, training, tips, templates etc., you end-up with disjointed efforts and often projects that compete or even compromise each-other. I like to think of a Project/Programme Office a bit like Air Traffic Control at an airport.

The role of Air Traffic Control [ATC] is not to fly the plane (that is the airline and the pilot) but to provide the structure that ensures a safe journey: pre-flight checks (governance), enough fuel (budget), all passengers (stakeholders), an agreed destination (deliverables and benefits), a clear route (tasks and plan) and an available runway (approval).  ATC schedules take-off and landing and provides information and support to pilots. In some cases ATC may be linked to a flight school that provides pilot training.

Without ATC you may have project crashes which are harmful to the business, stressful for your people, and compromise the strategy which is about quality, products, services and profits. It seems to me your role might expand beyond 'project management' (the pilot flying the plane) to 'programme management' (the Air Traffic Control role of planning and co-ordination)

We are expert in projects, programmes and change. We can deliver projects, but also provide the tools, templates, training and support for businesses to develop their own in-house capability

Tim HJ Rogers
MBA Management Consultant + Change Practitioner
ICF Trained Coach IoD Business Mentor
Mob 447797762051



If you are planning an M&A spree you will ostensibly need 3 groups of people ...

Group1 - who find, appraise, negotiate, acquire businesses as part of M&A acquisition process. These people will look at businesses differently to those who simply operate the business. Like a mechanic will look at a car differently to a driver.

Group2 - who post-acquisition integrate people, products, services, technology, legal, marketing etc. These people have the design template for how each acquisition should be integrated and a 90 day plan (?) for implementation .

Step 1 - Assemble the Project Team
Step 2 - Understand the Strategy
Step 3 - Review the Products and Services
Step 4 - Review the Support, Partners and Suppliers
Step 5 - Review the Organisation Structure
Step 6 - Review the Company Structure
Step 7 - Prepare the Service Teams
Step 8 - Communications
Step 9 - Culture and Process Change
Step 10 - Review and Migrate the Customers, Products and Services


Group3 - who run day-to-day business after all the post-acquisition integration complete and following standard policies, processes, procedures etc.

The role, skills, qualifications, thinking and time-horizon of each are quite different. As consultants we can help with the design, as project managers with the delivery, and as coaches we can support the people.

Tim HJ Rogers
MBA Management Consultant + Change Practitioner
ICF Trained Coach IoD Business Mentor
Mob 447797762051

Monday, 10 May 2021



People who are engaged (working hard) but not thriving in life (finding it hard)

61% higher likelihood of burnout often or always
48% higher likelihood of daily stress
66% higher likelihood of daily worry
double the rate of daily sadness and anger

Thriving: These respondents have positive views of their present life situation (7 or higher best life present rating) and have positive views of the next five years (8 or higher best life future rating). They report significantly fewer health problems and less worry, stress, sadness, depression and anger. They report more hope, happiness, energy, interest and respect. Across countries, the percentage of thriving employees ranges from 8% to 87%.

Struggling: These respondents struggle in their present life situation and have uncertain or negative views about their future. They report more daily stress and worry about money than thriving respondents do. Across countries, the percentage of struggling employees ranges from 12% to 77%.

Suffering: These respondents report that their lives are miserable (4 and below best life present rating) and have negative views of the next five years (4 and below best life future rating). They are more likely to report that they lack the basics of food and shelter and more likely to have physical pain and a lot of stress, worry, sadness and anger. They have less access to health insurance and care and more than double the disease burden compared with thriving respondents. Across countries, the percentage of suffering employees ranges from 0% to 35%.

Read more
(Thanks to David Ogilvie FCMI for the share)

Tim HJ Rogers
MBA Management Consultant + Change Practitioner
ICF Trained Coach IoD Business Mentor
Mob 447797762051

Monday, 19 April 2021


WORKING FROM HOME / WORK Most companies are prepared to accept some hybrid work as a permanent change (66% of firms feel it is inevitable and 73% of people want it) — and a minority embrace remote work as the main workplace as they imagine all real estate costs will soon be dropping from their traditional place on the ledger to the profit line. Thoughts How can we continue flexible working that makes use feel part of a community, rather than an isolated nomad. Perhaps A regular tribal gathering, rituals and routines that bind us, and choosing one or two methods of communication to connect us. Example instead of many, many confusing ways to connect (Email, Social Media, Video, Meetings) we select 1. What we use for urgent (WhatsApp?) 2. What we use to call for help (Chat?) 3. What we use to find information (IntraNet?) BOSSES ARE OUT OF TOUCH A report by Microsoft’s reveals business leaders are out of touch. High productivity is masking what’s really going on. If high productivity is leading to burn-out and resentment it isn't good. Moreover if the effort is due to fear of unemployment that isn't a good motivator or sustainable. Time spent in Microsoft Teams meetings has more than doubled (2.5x) globally. The average Teams meeting is up from 35 to 45 minutes year-over-year. The average Teams user is sending 45% more chats per week and 42% more chats per person after hours There was a 66% increase in the number of people working on documents. Thoughts How can we do to balance our efforts between work and welfare, about supporting people as well as getting jobs done. Perhaps coaching, mentoring and other caring initiatives (mindfullness, check-in, pastoral care) might help. Also switching the flow of information: receiving feedback, listening to ideas, help people feel engaged and valued. EMPLOYEES FEEL OVERWHELEMED The barrage of communications is unstructured and mostly unplanned, with 62% percent of Teams calls and meetings unscheduled or conducted ad hoc. And workers feel the pressure to keep up: Despite meeting and chat overload, 50% of people respond to Teams chats within five minutes or less, a response time that has not changed year-over-year. Fifty-four percent feel overworked. Thirty-nine percent feel exhausted. The workday has elongated by at least an hour. People do more work after hours and more work on weekends. Flexible working has become 24/7 working and down-sizing, contracting, and the gig-economy demand a 24/7 alert for work. Thoughts More than ever we need a focus on purpose rather than productivity, of value rather than volume. What can we do to reconnect with our reasons, motives and joy of working. THEY WANT TO QUIT 41% of employees are considering leaving their current employer this year. This year! And 46% say they’re likely to move because they can now work remotely. Most companies couldn’t deal with 10% of their workforce leaving in the same year and the second largest impact of a mass exodus would be higher costs to retain employees or higher cost to train new employees, or contract-hire people. Thoughts How can some of the interventions above help retain and recruit people? What can we offer to make work either a career (3-5 year) destination (training, qualification, experience, expertise ) or a great place to partner/contract (pay, brand, reputation, innovation). CONNECTIVITY HAS MADE US MORE SILOED Collaboration trends in Microsoft Teams and Outlook confirm that interactions with our immediate team, or close networks, increased with the move to remote work but our interactions outside of that team have diminished. Inevitably this created in-groups and out-groups strengthening bonds with those we interact with regularly at the expense of different people and diverse views. And that spells more competition (between teams) and less collaboration (for organisational goals) Thoughts What can we do to mix groups, encourage diversity, create new routes and channels, break-up patterns and routines in a way that keeps things exciting, alive, thoughtful, challenging, innovative and thinking without it becoming messy, chaotic and confusing. How can we introduce just enough 'chaos' to keep us vibrant, without overwhelming us? IS CRYING A GOOD TREND? Microsoft talks about authenticity in the workplace, about what percent was comfortable crying in front of their co-workers. Whilst mindfulness may have put us in better contact with our thoughts and feelings i do not feel a workplace that makes us cry is a good thing. Indeed it seems that the work ethic and culture is becoming toxic rather than supportive, and people have become the tools of productivity rather than the architects of it. Thoughts We should sweat our systems and our processes not our people. Machines should work 24/7 not people. Our people should be the architects and the mechanics, not the machines. Tim HJ Rogers MBA Management Consultant + Change Practitioner ICF Trained Coach IoD Business Mentor Mob 447797762051 We deliver projects and change, and improve the confidence, capacity, drive and desire of the people we work with. FOLLOW AdaptConsultingCompany #People, #Process, #Projects, #Change, #Consulting, #Coaching, #Mentoring, #Training

Monday, 12 April 2021



Never complain; never explain. This pithy little maxim was first coined by the British politician and prime minister Benjamin Disraeli, and adopted as a motto by many other high-ranking Brits — from members of royalty, to navy admirals, to fellow prime ministers Stanley Baldwin and Winston Churchill.

Feedback is an interesting thing, most people are shy to give feedback, generally opting for satisfactory 6/10 to 8/10 rather than a shocking 0 or superlative 10. If all your feedback is satisfactory is that good enough? If one person in a hundred suggests a low score or a high score is this more or less important than all the satisfactory scores?

What about second-hand or late feedback, is this more honest because it has the merit of reflection than direct face to face feedback?

When we receive negative feedback to what extent can we use this to remedy the past, apologise or recompense. Or should we simply note it and move forward, taking the lessons and applying them in the future, but in the meantime never complain; never explain.

What about positive feedback, should we use past successes, accolades and praise to herald future performance? Any investment business will tell you that the past is not always a predictor for the future.


There are many ways to get product or service feedback

1. Customer feedback surveys
2. Email and customer contact forms
3. Usability tests
4. Exploratory customer interviews
5. Social media
6. On-site activity (via analytics)
7. Instant feedback from your website

There are also lots of ways to get staff feedback

1. New employee surveys
2. Employee engagement surveys
3. Pulse surveys
4. Stay interviews
5. Review sites
6. Managers
7. Employee suggestion box
8. Exit interviews


Read more on Never complain; never explain.

Read more on 360 Degree Feedback: See the Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Tuesday, 30 March 2021


Meetings should always have some form of structure so that people arrive prepared and engaged and feel there is a purpose the the meeting, value in their opinion and importance in the outcome. The structure should not compromise the debate or become too bureaucratic, indeed a good structure will ensure that all points are considered, all perspectives are discussed and consensus  (and dissent) it noted in agreeing the course of action.

The ten behaviours that generate the finest thinking, and have become known as The Ten Components of a Thinking Environment, are: Attention, Equality, Ease, Appreciation, Encouragement, Feelings, Information, Diversity, Incisive Questions, Place.

You could use 2 documents, an Agenda before then meeting and Minutes after the meeting. Or instead you could have one document only and simply update it with additional detail so that it records the Before, During and After elements of the discussion.


MEETING (Title, Location, Time)
SBC Co Ltd  Joint Venture  9am till 10am Wed 7 Apr at SBC  HeadOffice

ATTENDANCE (Required and Optional Attendance)

AIM (Purpose or Intended outcome of meeting)
The aim of the meeting is to .......

(Any notes, data, to consider before the meeting)

Please read this document {link}
Please watch this video {link}
Please being your top ten priorities

(Key topics in priority order to manage time)

Initials Time Topic Aim
TR 10mins Update on ABC Projects, decision re go / no-go
AB 10mins Update on Recruitment, decide candidate
CC 10mins Update on Goals, note/agree

(Key discussion points 1.Whats Done 2. Issues/Options 3. Next)

(Decisions/ Actions: Who, What, When, How Much)

Find out more a about a Thinking Environment here

Friday, 26 March 2021


There are lots of models and theories out there. Here are some of the ones I like. There is nothing *new* these are not my ideas, although the comments and personal experience are. You are free to copy or comment, share or ignore.

Section 1 RACII










I hope I have attributed and named all the models correctly, and I have been careful to include all the links to the resources. I welcome comments or corrections and suggested additions.

If you are interested in Strategy, Projects, Programmes or Change please contact or phone +44(0)7797762051



Key Points

It is about communication, consultation, roles and responsibilities. There are many variations on this theme
  • Responsible: People or stakeholders who do the work. They must complete the task or objective or make the decision. Several people can be jointly Responsible.
  • Accountable: Person or stakeholder who is the "owner" of the work. He or she must sign off or approve when the task, objective or decision is complete. This person must make sure that responsibilities are assigned in the matrix for all related activities. Success requires that there is only one person Accountable, which means that "the buck stops there."
  • Consulted: People or stakeholders who need to give input before the work can be done and signed-off on. These people are "in the loop" and active participants.
  • Informed: People or stakeholders who need to be kept "in the picture." They need updates on progress or decisions, but they do not need to be formally consulted, nor do they contribute directly to the task or decision.


I always use this when project planning roles, goals, consultation and stakeholders. There many variations on this theme, and you may want to add elements to suit the project or context.

Useful Links



Key Points

It is about keepin the right stakeholders informed according to their power/influence
  • High power, highly interested people (Manage Closely): you must fully engage these people, and make the greatest efforts to satisfy them.
  • High power, less interested people (Keep Satisfied): put enough work in with these people to keep them satisfied, but not so much that they become bored with your message.
  • Low power, highly interested people (Keep Informed): adequately inform these people, and talk to them to ensure that no major issues are arising. People in this category can often be very helpful with the detail of your project.
  • Low power, less interested people (Monitor): again, monitor these people, but don’t bore them with excessive communication.


This is interesting because it is political and practical: it is ostensibly about lobbying for resources or canvassing for approval. There are implications with this model if you consider that the aim is not to satisfy people in each square, but to move them to the square where you want them to be.
  • If they are LOW power but you want them to be HIGH power, give them a role, promote them, showcase them, give then formal authority (budget holder, expert, sponsor) or informal authority (rapporter, scribe, facilitator)
  • If they are HIGH power but you want them to be LOW power, minimise their interest by distracting them with other tasks or overloading them with meaningless tasks, or simply excluding them from facts, conversations and meetings effectively marginalising them and making them inconsequential or discredited to the decision process.
  • If they are HIGH influence but you want them to be LOW influence, minimise their interest by distracting them with something more important, assure them "there is nothing to see" or "nothing to worry about" either reduce their interest in the topic or reduce the topics interest to them.
  • If they are LOW influence but you want them to be HIGH influence, maximise their interest by pointing out impact or implications, assure them "this is important" or "this is an opportunity" either increase their interest in the topic (briefings, meetings, data) or increase the topics interest to them (opportunity to advance, pay, prestige etc.)

Useful Links



Key Points Six degrees of separation is the idea that all people on average are six, or fewer, social connections away from each other. Also known as the 6 Handshakes rule. As a result, a chain of "a friend of a friend" statements can be made to connect any two people in a maximum of six steps. When we understand this we realise how we can leverage our network of who knows who, so that when it comes to influence or persuasion where we might not have a direct affect we may, though use of the network have an indirect, but nonetheless profound effect.


When planning one project we spend a lot of time on who knows who, so that we could create a cascade of super-communicators. For example my telling Person A something we knew they would tell Persion 1,2,3,4,5,6 and my telling Person B something we knew they would tell Persion 7,8,9,10,11. By understanding the cascade network of influence you only have directly communicate with 10 to be able to influence up to 100 (or more).

Our choice was not solely based on Person A knows 10 people and Person B knows 10 other people. We noted for example that Person A had a style, authority, approach which would go very well with Persion 1,2,3,4,5,6 and Person B had a style, authority, approach which would work with Persion 7,8,9,10,11.

This approach of matching select messages with key messengers really helped our project and change delivery.

Useful Links



Grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to know the difference.

Key Points

The CIRCLES OF INFLUENCE might be regarded in the context of the Serenity Prayer: Grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to know the difference.

However I am going to apply this model very differently. Persuasion and Influence can be very complex. Let's take buying a computer. You might think there are 2 people involved: seller and buyer. But careful thought tells us that the following people might be involved. Understanding their needs and communicating in their terms may have a profound effect on the outcome. Thus you can work to engage or disengage people's interest or concern or move things into or out-of their control by the way you approach your communications.

  • The sponsor may be interested in the cost or budget
  • The finance person may be interested in the return on investment
  • The technology person may be interested in compatibility and security
  • The manager may be interested in functionality
  • The end-users may be interested in ease of use
  • The risk team maybe concerned about data and privacy
  • The HR team may be interested in support and training
  • The investors may be interested in market response


This is classic stakeholder management: understanding the "hot topic" for each group and managing the message content, media, style, timing to meet our plans for that person. This may be to influence or persuade positively or negatively. When we know who has formal power (because of hierarchy) or technical power (because of expertise) or persuasive power (because of like-ability) or resource power (because they control access to people, materals or funds) or approval power (because they sign-off eg risk or compliance) we can move them around the board like chess pieces based on message content, media, style, timing. This is how political campaigns are fought and won, knowing who is "for" who is "against" and what are the factors that will influence the critical "undecided"

Useful Links



Key Points

Much has already been said about matching the right communication style and content to each person. Understanding the DISC communication preferences helps us undserstand how people like to receive and process information and consequently how we might best persuade or influence.
  • the DOMINANT type is also known as High D: Outgoing and Task-oriented Dominant Style: People who have both Outgoing and Task-oriented traits often exhibit DOMINANT and DIRECT behaviors. They usually focus on results, problem-solving, and the bottom-line.
  • the INSPIRING type is also known as High I: Outgoing and People-oriented Inspiring Style: People who have both Outgoing and People-oriented traits often exhibit INSPIRING and INTERACTIVE behaviors. They usually focus on interacting with people, having fun, and/or creating excitement.
  • the SUPPORTIVE type is also known as High S: Reserved and People-oriented Supportive Style: People who have both Reserved and People-oriented traits often exhibit SUPPORTIVE and STEADY behaviors. They usually focus preserving relationships and on creating or maintaining peace and harmony.
  • the CAUTIOUS type is also known as High C: Reserved and Task-oriented Cautious Style: People who have both Reserved and Task-oriented traits often exhibit CAUTIOUS and CAREFUL behaviors. They usually focus on facts, rules, and correctness.

Preferred DISC communication styles of the D-Profiles

D-profiles often communicate in one direction. They talk and expect others to listen. D-profiles express their own opinions as fact; meaning their opinions need no further discussion. They may be blunt and they can often challenge others. Your interactions with the D-profile may feel like a competition. You will need to stand toe-to-toe. Since they want to move and complete tasks quickly, they may interrupt often and not ask for input from others.

If you want to interact more effectively with the D-profile then focus on tasks and results. Try keeping pace by moving quickly. Also, do not frustrate their desire to take action. They want to be in control so make them feel that they have power.

Preferred DISC communication styles of the I-Profiles

I-profiles communicate in an inspiring way. They will sell their ideas and visions. I-profiles will talk a lot. They prefer to look at the big picture and avoid details. I-profiles focus on the positive and tend to avoid unpleasant subjects. They are good at providing positive, constructive feedback, but they may not be direct.

When you are interacting with I-profiles, stay focused on the positive. Move quickly, but spend time chatting. Try to show interest when they are talking and talk about people over tasks. Try not to focus too much on details or focus on the negative.

Preferred DISC communication styles of the S-Profiles

The S-profiles, like the D-profiles, also prefer one directional communication. However, they prefer interactions in one-on-one settings. They answer when asked, but otherwise, they prefer listening to speaking. S-profiles tend to speak calmly and amiably. S-profiles look to create trust during the interaction. They prefer to talk about topics that they have mastered. In addition, they will explain things calmly and thoroughly.

Some tips for interacting successfully with the S-profile include slowing down and explaining in detail. Also, give them time to think and talk about it with others. Remember to warn them about any possible changes. Remember to focus on benefits to their team and people close to them. Last, but not least, focus on building trust.

Preferred DISC communication styles of the C-Profiles

C-profiles often prefer to use written communication, like emails. They don’t readily express disagreeing views. They want detailed, fact-based information to insure they make the correct decisions. Since C-profiles focus so much on details and data, they may miss the big picture. C-profiles prefer conversations where they don't have to focus on opinions or abstract matters. They can be extremely diplomatic.

Tips for improving interactions with C-profiles include giving them time to think and ask all of their questions. Then, when you are answering questions, make sure to explain carefully and give sound reasons and data whenever possible. Be patient with the details. Ideally, provide information in writing and ahead of time whenever possible.

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Understanding MBTI means understanding the following

  • Favorite world: Do you prefer to focus on the outer world or on your own inner world? This is called Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I).
  • Information: Do you prefer to focus on the basic information you take in or do you prefer to interpret and add meaning? This is called Sensing (S) or Intuition (N).
  • Decisions: When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at logic and consistency or first look at the people and special circumstances? This is called Thinking (T) or Feeling (F).
  • Structure: In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided or do you prefer to stay open to new information and options? This is called Judging (J) or Perceiving (P).
Your Personality Type: When you decide on your preference in each category, you have your own personality type, which can be expressed as a code with four letters.

Key Points

The MBTI style suggests to us the communication preferences helps us undserstand how people like to receive and process information and consequently how we might best persuade or influence.

With ST people: Be specific, confident, well-reasoned demonstrate immediate advantages, profit provide examples; use visual aids.

With NT people: Be specific, well-reasoned; use visual aids, diagrams use concepts, theories appeal to intellectual capabilities give them a challenge show how the problem in hand or subject of communication fits into the "big picture"

With SF people: Be supportive, expressive, and confident provide examples; demonstrate immediate advantages, profit appeal to feelings and emotions

With NF people: Be expressive, well-reasoned use visual aids use concepts, theories appeal to their intuition give them a challenge show how the problem in hand or subject of communication fits into the "big picture"


I use this or a variation on all projects and change programmes and then link to communications plan of what gets said to whom, why, when and how. This is essential understanding for persuasion and influence in projects and change.

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Key Points

It is important to understand that the bigger the team the harder it is to maintain communications essential understanding for persuasion and influence in projects and change.


I try to keep teams small 5 to 7 people. If there are more, have a sub-team. There is no reason not have have a team of teams.

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Key Points

Six Ways to Make People Like You

  • Become genuinely interested in other people. "You can make more friends in two months by being interested in them, than in two years by making them interested in you."[6]:52 The only way to make quality, lasting friendships is to learn to be genuinely interested in them and their interests.
  • Smile. Happiness does not depend on outside circumstances, but rather on inward attitudes. Smiles are free to give and have an amazing ability to make others feel wonderful. Smile in everything that you do.
  • Remember that a person's name is, to that person, the sweetest and most important sound in any language. "The average person is more interested in their own name than in all the other names in the world put together." People love their names so much that they will often donate large amounts of money just to have a building named after themselves. We can make people feel extremely valued and important by remembering their name.
  • Be a good listener. Encourage others to talk about themselves. The easiest way to become a good conversationalist is to become a good listener. To be a good listener, we must actually care about what people have to say. Many times people don't want an entertaining conversation partner; they just want someone who will listen to them.
  • Talk in terms of the other person's interest. The royal road to a person's heart is to talk about the things he or she treasures most. If we talk to people about what they are interested in, they will feel valued and value us in return.
  • Make the other person feel important – and do it sincerely. The golden rule is to treat other people how we would like to be treated. We love to feel important and so does everyone else. People will talk to us for hours if we allow them to talk about themselves. If we can make people feel important in a sincere and appreciative way, then we will win all the friends we could ever dream of.

Twelve Ways to Win People to Your Way of Thinking

  • The only way to get the best of an argument is to avoid it. Whenever we argue with someone, no matter if we win or lose the argument, we still lose. The other person will either feel humiliated or strengthened and will only seek to bolster their own position. We must try to avoid arguments whenever we can.
  • Show respect for the other person's opinions. Never say "You're wrong." We must never tell people flat out that they are wrong. It will only serve to offend them and insult their pride. No one likes to be humiliated; we must not be so blunt.
  • If you're wrong, admit it quickly and emphatically. Whenever we are wrong we should admit it immediately. When we fight we never get enough, but by yielding we often get more than we expected. When we admit that we are wrong people trust us and begin to sympathize with our way of thinking.
  • Begin in a friendly way. "A drop of honey can catch more flies than a gallon of gall." If we begin our interactions with others in a friendly way, people will be more receptive. Even if we are greatly upset, we must be friendly to influence people to our way of thinking.
  • Start with questions to which the other person will answer yes. Do not begin by emphasizing the aspects in which we and the other person differ. Begin by emphasizing and continue emphasizing the things on which we agree. People must be started in the affirmative direction and they will often follow readily. Never tell someone they are wrong, but rather lead them where we would like them to go with questions that they will answer "yes" to.
  • Let the other person do a great deal of the talking. People do not like listening to us boast, they enjoy doing the talking themselves. Let them rationalize and talk about the idea, because it will taste much sweeter to them in their own mouth.
  • Let the other person feel the idea is his or hers. People inherently like ideas they come to on their own better than those that are handed to them on a platter. Ideas can best be carried out by allowing others to think they arrived at it themselves.
  • Try honestly to see things from the other person's point of view. Other people may often be wrong, but we cannot condemn them. We must seek to understand them. Success in dealing with people requires a sympathetic grasp of the other person's viewpoint.
  • Be sympathetic with the other person's ideas and desires. People are hungering for sympathy. They want us to recognize all that they desire and feel. If we can sympathize with others, they will appreciate our side as well and will often come around to our way of thinking.
  • Appeal to the nobler motives. Everyone likes to be glorious in their own eyes. People believe that they do things for noble and morally upright reasons. If we can appeal to others' noble motives we can successfully convince them to follow our ideas.
  • Dramatize your ideas. In this fast-paced world, simply stating a truth isn't enough. The truth must be made vivid, interesting, and dramatic. Television has been doing it for years. Sometimes ideas are not enough and we must dramatize them.
  • Throw down a challenge. The thing that most motivates people is the game. Everyone desires to excel and prove their worth. If we want someone to do something, we must give them a challenge and they will often rise to meet it.

Be a Leader: How to Change People Without Giving Offense or Arousing Resentment

  • Begin with praise and honest appreciation. People will do things begrudgingly for criticism and an iron-fisted leader, but they will work wonders when they are praised and appreciated.
  • Call attention to people's mistakes indirectly. No one likes to make mistakes, especially in front of others. Scolding and blaming only serve to humiliate. If we subtly and indirectly show people mistakes, they will appreciate us and be more likely to improve.
  • Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing the other person. When something goes wrong, taking responsibility can help win others to your side. People do not like to shoulder all the blame and taking credit for mistakes helps to remove the sting from our critiques of others.
  • Ask questions instead of giving direct orders. No one likes to take orders. If we offer suggestions, rather than orders, it will boost others' confidence and allow them to learn quickly from their mistakes.
  • Let the other person save face. Nothing diminishes the dignity of a man quite like an insult to his pride. If we don't condemn our employees in front of others and allow them to save face, they will be motivated to do better in the future and confident that they can.
  • Praise every improvement. People love to receive praise and admiration. If we truly want someone to improve at something, we must praise their every advance. "Abilities wither under criticism, they blossom under encouragement."
  • Give the other person a fine reputation to live up to. If we give people a great reputation to live up to, they will desire to embody the characteristics with which we have described them. People will work with vigor and confidence if they believe they can be better.
  • Use encouragement. Make the fault seem easy to correct. If a desired outcome seems like a momentous task, people will give up and lose heart. But if a fault seems easy to correct, they will readily jump at the opportunity to improve. If we frame objectives as small and easy improvements, we will see dramatic increases in desire and success in our employees.
  • Make the other person happy about doing what you suggest. People will most often respond well when they desire to do the behavior put forth. If we want to influence people and become effective leaders, we must learn to frame our desires in terms of others' desires.


The book How to Win Friends and Influence People is a classic, must read book. Highly recommended. i actually have a summary of the points above on a card that I keep in my diary. Often before a meeting I try and read it to remind me composure, confidence, context and conversation. I am far from perfect, but at least I am aware of my imperfections!

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Coaching is a method to influence or persuade. This opens up a whole range of tools, models and approaches to influence or persuasion. However I will suggest one model only and perhaps make coaching, facilitation and mentoring a separate compendium of tools, models and approaches. The model I have selected is NANCY KLINE - TIME TO THINK, and below are the key factors to creating a thinking environment.

Key Points

  • ATTENTION: listening with palpable respect and genuine interest, and without interruption. The quality of our attention determines the quality of other people’s thinking.
  • EQUALITY: treating each other as thinking peers; giving equal turns and attention; Everyone is valued equally as a thinker.
  • EASE: offering freedom from internal rush or urgency. Ease, an internal state free from rush or urgency, creates the best conditions for thinking.
  • APPRECIATION: practicing a 5:1 ratio of appreciation to challenge. Because the brain requires appreciation to work well, our thinking is often specious.
  • ENCOURAGEMENT: giving courage to go to the cutting edge of ideas by moving beyond internal competition. Competition between thinkers can be dangerous, replace it with a wholehearted, unthreatened search for good ideas.
  • FEELINGS: allowing sufficient emotional release to restore thinking. We think that when feelings start, thinking stops. Instead, when people show signs of feelings, we relax and welcome them, good thinking will resume.
  • INFORMATION: supplying the facts; recognising social context; dismantling denial. Accurate and full information provides the path to good independent thinking. Dismantling denial is often the first step to independent thinking.
  • DIFFERENCE: welcoming diverse group identities and diversity of thinking. The greater the diversity of the group, and the greater the welcoming of different points of view, the greater the chance of accurate, cutting-edge thinking
  • INCISIVE QUESTIONS: removing untrue assumptions that limit our ability to think for ourselves well. Challenge or remove untrue limiting assumption, lived as true.
  • PLACE When the physical environment affirms our importance, we think more clearly and boldly. Thinking Environments are places that say back to people, ‘You matter.’ People think at their best when they notice that the place reflects their value.


I like NANCY KLINE - TIME TO THINK because it emphasises the context of communications (environment and attitude) is critical to the content of communications and this has to be a factor in better thinking, better decisions and influence or persuasion.

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WhenWhoHot TopicMessageFor / AgainstIntention (Why)MethodDoneFeedback
Key Topic
Gain SupportEmail


Reduce ResistancePhone


Get DecisionZoom or Teams


PlacateCoffee Chat



End Customers





Team Meeting



WhenWhoHot TopicMessageFor / AgainstIntention (Why)MethodDoneFeedback
PlanningShareholdersMoneyReturn on InvestmentFor +1Gain SupportTeam MeetingYes dd/mm/yyKey concerns, issues, actions
PlanningCustomersPriceBenefitsFor +2Gain SupportWebsiteYes dd/mm/yyKey concerns, issues, actions
PlanningUnionJobsOpportunitiesAgainst -1Gain SupportCoffee ChatYes dd/mm/yyKey concerns, issues, actions
PlanningTeamsWorkSkillsAgainst -1Gain SupportTeam MeetingYes dd/mm/yyKey concerns, issues, actions
PilotShareholdersMoneyReturn on InvestmentFor +1Gain SupportTeam MeetingYes dd/mm/yyKey concerns, issues, actions
PilotCustomersPriceBenefitsFor +1Gain SupportWebsiteYes dd/mm/yyKey concerns, issues, actions
PilotUnionJobsOpportunitiesFor +1Gain SupportCoffee ChatIn Progress dd/mm/yyPending
PilotTeamsWorkSkillsFor +1Gain SupportTeam MeetingPlanned dd/mm/yyTBC

Key Points

The key point is, as noted above, managing the message content, media, style, timing to meet our plans for that person or group. Sometimes the order in which you tell people can be critical to success which is why leaks can be so troublesome. The above table is very simplistic, in truth you may have many people or representatives (more than simply customers, suppliers, staff, management, public and media), and many methods or media (more than simply emails, meetings, presentations, commercials, posters) and many stages or phases (more than simply start middle, end)


I always do this for every project or change and it is often quite a bit more complex than this. For some large-scale public sector change this can include hundreds of stakeholders and thousands of messages. When working on messages we took the following approach to appeal to those who like brevity and those who like detail. We took effort to match the right message and level of detail to each person or group according to their preferences.

For each topic

  • One PHRASE or sentence that you can say in a lift, or as a sound-bite for TV or media
  • One PARAGRAPH or summary that you can say to offer more information, context or detail, usually a follow-up to the above.
  • One PAGE or detail that you can explain to demonstrate thinking, feeling, consultation, usually a follow-up to the above.
  • One PACK or similar data-bundle or report to detail thinking, feeling, consultation, usually a follow-up to the above